British & English Copper Coin collecting

Farthings & halfpenny errors and omissions

Copper Coins For Sale



The List of Monarchs Below

Below are pictures of kings and queens in order of reign. The coins pictured are my own which have been collected over the years and are still in my possession, the photos used will be changed often so eventually the pictures will be perfect.
Any well know specimens that are missing i hope to acquired in the future, as for grades well its just how they have turned up over the years.
Often a long time will past before a better grade can be found if at all, im most cases the more well off the collector or dealer the better the examples.
There are no tin coins, patterns or proofs except one or two halfpenny. Ann and James II are there for continuity only as good tin examples are very expensive.
The below lists will display farthings or halfpennies next to each monarch, click on either to veiw the required list of farthings or halfpennies.
On every entry there will be a breif discription, grade, and how many times i`ve seen the example in question regardless of condition since 1980, this i when i begun scribbling notes as a boy.
I hope these findings along with my experience will help any collector be it beginner, intermediate, or amateur when buying coins.
The world has changed very much since i started collecting and the internet has changed how we collect for ever, unfortunately some internet sellers do lack the knowledge of the more old shcool exsperienced seller in which they do copy each other. Resulting in scarce coins suddenly becoming rare along with the price.
Many examples on this site were acquired the old fashion way before the internet came along; that`s coin shops, junk shops, boot fairs, dealers lists, even some metal detecting.
Antique shops even sell a few coins along with flea markets, coins do seem to turn up everywhere and a quick look can sometimes pay off.
I do appreciate and understand that theirs far more superior examples eslewhere in other collections but most collectors settle for the thrill and the chase of collecting, its that which makes everything worth while.
I do remember in the past needing advice on coins and collecting issues and with out help it was hard work getting those answers, i hope this site will help in acquiring some answers for a happier: safer, more enjoyable, collecting experience.
Please enjoy this site for what its is, and please understand it wasn`t easy with dyslexia.
Im more than happy to answer questions or help another way, please use the contact us below, i normally answer quite quickly.
Best wishes and happy hunting

Joe Lee



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About This Site

This website is purely for Reference and comparison, also comparing copper coins of your own collection to help prove there existence.


There are hundreds copper coins on many pages, some which are not listed in books, which to be honest is easy to achieve. In one thousand years collectors will still be finding new varieties,  i dont mean letters over the same letters or dates over the same date but proper genuine cover ups by mint workers who were bad at spelling like my self.


This website is solely for the love of coins and collecting them. Built by my self with the help of a clever chap called Mike sherwood a web designer inade to help beginners and any one looking to collect copper coins of normal issues and errors. 


Ive collected coins since 1980 but its copper which i find the most fascinating due to the large amounts minted and the vast amount of varieties and errors that exist, infact i believe theirs so many different types it would be possible to fill a seaby/spinks catolog of just copper.


I aim to bring straight to your screen at home some rare English and British copper farthings and halfpenny coins from Charles II to Queen Victoria. There will be some coins for sale from time to time but im not a dealer and don`t sell coins for a living, their be doubles or triples acquried of the years.


Examples that need to be seen up close like 1723 farthing R over side ways R or 1700 farthing RRITANNIA just to see what the first R looks like,  i`ve seen 1700 farthings with a broken B in Britannia passed on the internet for the real thing.

If a buying collector has never seen a genuine example of the above then this site is for you and could save any unsure collector a fortune. By the time the end of this site is reached any unsure collector will feel confident and surer collecting and by pass most collecting issues which happen to probably all of us.


The now surer collector has develope an eagle eye and necessary skills to spot coins that often slip the net of dealers and experienced collectors. Of course you may not need any advice or help collecting as many people dont so with out further ado we shall part company now.


For those who have not gone thank you very much, i shall try my best to explain as many aspects of collecting through out this site.


Some areas in this collection are weak and thats down to lack of money or lack of availability its as simple as that, but theres still plenty of good examples with super photos to help compare: comfirm, and grade, with collecting tips and much more.


Very few coins on this site are described as a dealer would describe them because: one im not a dealer, two this collection is not for sale, ( yet ) and lastly, i have nothing to gain from any of this.


This website was designed for the love of coins and to give something back to help other collectors that collect copper farthings & halfpennies to have a easier, safer, happier time collecting.



Were To Buy From


Sadly their`s very few traditional coin shops left these days as most have closed down, but some antiques shops do sell coins and there seems to be more collectable shops opening every day.

Coin magazines are full of valuable information with many dealers lists to view, with meetings and clubs open near you and of course collectors fairs. I have`nt met a dealer yet who has`nt the time to spare a few words of advice, their good people who can often find specific coins you require.

Many people are using the internet more and more to find their coins and auction sites are becoming very popular as well. But please beware when using the internet and auction sites if your new to coin collecting, a genuine dealer`s better to buy from with a returns policy rather than taking a chance. As a rule of thumb with normal coins, dont worry if you miss them or they get away because theirs always more coins.


The Expert


Experts know alot of stuff thats why there experts and will always be happy to help or sell to you what your looking for, but there seems to be more now than ever due to the internet. Even experts make mistakes and would be coin dealers ( internet sellers ) are by far the worse, here are two examples which happen to me...


EXAMPLE ONE  i acquired from a large prestigous auction house a farthing listed as William & Mary Farthing 1694 L over M in GVLIELMVS, interesting i thought. It was in fact L over M in GVLIELMVS and R over B in MARIA, it wasn`t checked properly by the auction house expert.


EXAMPLE TWO while trawling through an internet auction site i came acrcoss victorian half penny dated 1854 grades fine with a buy it now, nothing to get excited about. But on closer inspection there was a inverted A for V in Victoria. Again not checked properly.


But two weeks later another came on as an auction but was taken off the same day, i asked the seller why? the seller said some one made him an offer. That halfpenny was Good extremely fine, somebody done very well there as the seller had know idea what he or she had sold. A good proportion of coins on this site were brought as standard coins, so always check and look through the coin no matter who you  buy from.

How I Collect


Back when i first started in 1980 i collected anything i liked and to be honest thats a great way to collect. Some collectors collect by type or dates or just pennies which is very popular, i met a man once who only collected halfcrowns i never understood that, but i was young.


There are also collectors who collect by association, i will do this when i go on holiday or traveling around the UK. Their nearly always workman tokens or foreign coins especially German & Austrian which have superior workmanship.


I would consider my self as a turn over every stone collector and can quite easely lose an afternoon or an evening in a wink of an eye. All collectors have or will develope a certain pull like gravity to a certain type of coin or denomination or even possibly a date.

The collector can`t leave it alone or put it down for a moment this is called an obsession and my world of copper farthings and halfpenny.


When people find out i collect coins they ask what coins do you collect ? expecting me to have a carrier bag full of rottern pennies and jubilee crowns. I answer by saying, coins that do not exist ? they nearly always have a puzzled look on the face and quite quckly the subject changes. Most people can`t comprehend that concept.

But for collectors like us, it matters not how we collect, only happiness and contentment with the collection we`ve acquired, for somebody somewear will always have a better example.


When looking for coins i will use my experience more than books or papers, if examining a coin and its the third example i have seen since 1980 then to me its excessively rare, the tenth example then extremely rare and so on.


For me this is more reliable than catalogs, i find that catalogs or valuation books can often be wrong along with there classification of scarcity and rarity. Taking into concideration coin valuation catalogs sell coins which does`nt help matters as impartial advice is now unachievable.


Its very dificult to value rare coins, the price is what the buyer is prepared to pay on the day and how desperate the collector is to add the example to his or her collection.

The price is then remembered and used as a reference in the future but this doesn`t  mean the peice will sell again for that price as the buyer or bidder just wanted the coin badly enough on that day. If i had been waiting ten years for a reasonable example to turn up i know what i would do if i had the money to spare as these coins are not normal coins in the mind of collectors like us.



Collecting both farthings and halfpennies is exspensive and time comsuming so collecting over longer periods of time helps but if its all happening now or tomorrow it can become frustrating.

If im in one of those tricky situation where im presented with two or three coins and can only afford one, i will always buy the coin ive seen the less of out of the two or three as theres a better chance of seeing the one or two ive rejected again in the future.

At the end of the day its all down to money more than anything else, im afraid regular collectors are not cheque book collectors, but we still love it the same, or maybe more ?.


Cleaning coins.

Cleaning coins


Im sure you have heard from every one that`s  a no no,  and your right to think that but from time to time coins do turn up caked in grease, sludge, and other nasty substances.


To remove this grime here`s is what to do, if one can afford it then an ultrasonics machine is the best way, if money is an issue then ( And this does work ) get an egg cup half fill with cillet bang, place a cotton wool bud in the solution, then drop you coin in for five seconds take the coin out rub the cotton wool bud over the area of grime for another five seconds. Then wash off immediately with warm water, pat dry the coin with a soft dry flannel or towel.


Lastly wipe both sides of your coin on the end of your nose or fore head which ever is the greaser to take the dryness out of the coin. This process also removes the early stages of green verdigris, but if left to long in the solution if will lighten the appearance of your coin.


White spirit works just the same with no real consequence of the coin lightening  (possibly 5-10 % ) if unlucky, but each coin needs a longer soak ( 10-30 minutes ) pending grime amounts. On example`s with small areas of grease a cocktail stick and magnifier glass to aid removal.

On servere example`s that are cake in grease soak for 30 minute`s in white spirits then use a very soft tooth brush soaked in white spirit and vigorously brush in different direction quickly, then wash off and apply a little oil from ones forehead to put back the oils the spirit took out. Its the same for mud except soak in very warm water with washing up liquid.



To remove or at least stop green verdigris on more advanced examples again an egg cup with lemon juice and some cocktail sticks, soak the cocktail stick in the lemon juice and just touch the verdigris spots and let the lemon juice flow out the stick.

On examples completely consumed with verdigris there’s not much hope, the only option left is acid ! applied the same way with a cocktail stick ( wear safety classes gloves and thoroughly risk assess ) on the infective area.

Its a common fact that some coin dealers will wipe engine oil into some of there coins to improve there eye appeal before sale. And its all most certain that nearly every hammered, Roman, Saxon coin that`s come out the ground over the years has also been cleaned at some point and re-toned over the years.

Coins do re-tone pending how and where there stored, here is a good example of this when i was married to my wife.

 I insisted she wore a Victorian shilling in her garta of the same year were married 1997, the shilling graded brilliant uncirculated. After the wedding the dress went into the loft for storage three years, later i remembered and retrieved the shilling which had now toned a fantastic purple and gold tone. I was very happy to see such a pretty coin. It was the lace and cotton which tone the coin.

I have used cotton and other natural substance`s to experiment with other ways of toning coins, from leaving coins on a sunny window seal to making a sealed box and exposing metal ie copper, bronze, silver to H2S gas, H2S is hydrogen sulphide the smell of rotten vegetation and stagnant water that`s often found in woods and streams.

But easier to acquire in the form of stink bombs, it brings up very bright possibly cleaned or dipped coins ( this takes a lot of practice, please contact me for information ) with a heavy dark old looking cabinet tone.

As with all i have mentioned in the above it does take some practice to get right.

How i see is taking an example which no one wants, and restoring it cosmetically to a collectable coin.

Warm water with soap or washing up liquid and a soft brush is acceptable in some circumstances ( even on copper/ bronze ) whats not acceptable is polishing or cleaning with a cloth this will look like ants have been ice skating on your coin which is now destroyed for ever.

If unsure about any of the above, is best to just leave your coin and wrap it up in cotton, pop it in a draw and forget about it for a few years. Good luck and please feel free to contact me about any of the above..